Singapore is hailed as having achieved unparalleled success in providing low-cost affordable public housing for the masses; and is admired the world over for its town planning and urban management policies. Through them, Singapore transformed its housing landscape from one of slums and squatters into a well-planned distribution of residential townships throughout the island state. The four main features of the public housing policy in Singapore are: strong government support, provision of financial aid in the form of subsidies and housing loans, a sound legislative structure and supportive government policies.
This resource guide lists materials on Singapore public housing that are available at the Lee Kong Chian Reference Library and its electronic databases.
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Spanning five decades, the book traces the evolution of public housing in Singapore. It shows how Singapore’s public housing policies not only addressed the housing needs of its population but the social and nation-building goals of the country as well.
Produced on the 50th anniversary of the Housing Development Board, this book gives an overview of the Board’s achievements in public housing.
From the results of the HDB Sample Household Survey 2003, this monograph touches on kinship ties, community bonding, and the quality of life of the elderly in HDB estates. It details the socio-economic profile of the elderly, and their likes and dislikes about living in HDB, use of facilities, perception of high-rise high-density living, and housing aspirations.
This is one of two publications based on the five-yearly sample household survey conducted in 2013 which covered 7,800 households in 23 HDB towns and 3 estates. Residents surveyed were highly satisfied with their HDB living environment, and view their flats as a home where the family is formed. Their flats were regarded as homes to live in, rather than a form of investment.
This is one of two publications based on the five-yearly sample household survey conducted in 2013 which covered 7,800 households in 23 HDB towns and 3 estates. Overall social well-being of the survey households were high. HDB played a positive role of cultivating community and family relations rather than just provider of public housing and facilities.
Made Chairman of HDB in 1960, Lim established the institution and led it in laying the foundations of building affordable housing on a massive scale to meet the residential needs of our population. Read his personal account here.
As Minister of National Development from 1999, Mah Bow Tan produced a series of comments that examine aspects of Singapore’s housing system, such as supply and affordability.
This study reviews the policies that impact on ethnic relations in Singapore, focusing on HDB’s ethnic integration policy, ethnic relations in neighbourhood schools and the management and maintenance of multiculturalism in grassroots organisations. Key findings and recommendations to fine-tune the policies and programmes are made in the final chapter.
- Research and Planning Dept. Research Section, Housing Development Board. (2000). ]Social aspects of public housing in Singapore: Kinship ties and neighbourly relations](http://eservice.nlb.gov.sg/item_holding.aspx?bid=9902165). Singapore: Research Section, Research & Planning Dept., Housing & Development Board.
Call no.: RSING 363.585095957 SOC
Based on the results of the HDB Sample Household Survey 1998, this monograph reports that kinship ties between parents and their married children remain strong despite nuclearisation of families, and the state of neighbourly relations tended to be extensive rather than intensive.
This publication from the Ministry of National Development (MND) gives an overview of its roles and responsibilities as a government agency responsible for land use and infrastructural development planning. It works with other government agencies and statutory boards to ensure that Singapore’s land is used efficiently. In the area of housing, MND works with HDB to provide affordable public housing that encourages the growth of vibrant, thriving multi-racial communities. This is done through activities such as the planning and development of new towns, the allocation and managing of HDB properties, and the upgrading and redevelopment of older HDB towns and estates.
This text aims to find out the social and political impacts of the housing programme in Singapore, effects of the relocation process on various sub-groups within the relocated population as well as on social life in the public housing estates as well as the patterns of neighbourliness in these estates. Includes five case studies (one Indian, two Malay and two Chinese families living in one-room to four-room flats) that were selected to represent the broad spectrum of sample families.
- Tan, A. H. H. & Phang, Sock-Yong. (1991). The Singapore experience in public housing. Singapore: Times Academic Press for the Centre for Advanced Studies National University of Singapore.
Call no.: RSING 363.585095957 TAN
This paper, presented at the World Bank Conference, “China: Housing Reform Sector Study” in Beijing, 9-11 October 1989, examines the various policies that brought about the housing reform in Singapore, such as the the Central Provident Fund being utilised for housing finance, HDB rental policies, home-ownership policies and the HDB resale market policies.
- Tan, W. (2002). The housing market. Singapore: Prentice Hall.
Call no.: RSING 363.5095957 TAN
This text provides an introduction to how housing markets operate and state policies that are used to balance demand and supply for housing. It examines in detail HDB’s price strategies (price/ rent controls, anti-monopoly pricing measures) demand strategies (tax breaks, financing schemes) and supply strategies (land policies, town councils, improving productivity in residential construction).
Divided into three sections, chapter 1 examines the development of Singapore’s housing strategy and public housing policies from the 1920s to 1990s. Chapter 2 looks at the more affluent middle class’ rising aspiration for more exclusive private housing and the government’s response in restricting its access. The final chapter discusses trends in Singapore’s private housing and the arguments against the corporatisation of HDB.
- Estates to be revitalised, with homes nearer to green spaces: MND, MEWR. (2016, January 21). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“The Government is committed to providing a range of public housing options so there is “a home for every budget and need’…”
- S’poreans’ dreams for nation’s future go on show. (2015, November 25). Today (Singapore). Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…in the Home Tomorrow dome, visitors…explore possibilities for the living environments of the future, featuring smart design and technology. The exhibit introduces concepts such as green cities and self-powered HDB towns…”
- Khaw Boon Wan sees Singapore housing supply rising 11% in three years. (2015, February 21). The Business Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…by early 2018, the stock of housing in Singapore would have grown to 1.43 million units…”
- S’pore scores in efforts to improve home affordability. (2014, January 22). The Business Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“The survey rated Singapore’s home affordability at 5.1 in the third quarter of 2013.”
Permanent residents occupy less than 5 per cent of all Housing Board flats, and are living in estates across the island.
The relaxation of public housing policy in March 2007 sparked the first increase in the number of Singaporeans sub-letting their housing board flats.
…Unlike many countries where public housing means ‘homes for the poor’, some 80 per cent of Singapore’s population live in a diverse range of 900,000 public homes islandwide today.
Several factors – the rise of rental cheats and the recent surge in demand for rental flats – have prompted the HDB to conduct a review of its public rental scheme, the results of which are due early next year.
Yesterday, Mr Mah told reporters at a community event in Tampines: ‘Our housing policy is premised on home ownership. Rental flats are there because we recognise that there is a small group of people who cannot afford to own flats.’
“We wish to reiterate the principles underlying our public housing policy. First, public housing in Singapore caters primarily to the housing needs of Singapore citizens and their families.”
Housing agents will soon have to walk buyers and sellers through the rules before a deal. Minister for National Development Mah Bow Minister for National Development Mah Bow Tan Minister for National Development Mah Bow Tan.
Single Singaporeans who opt to buy an HDB resale flat in order to live with their parents can now get a housing subsidy of $20,000.
Minister for National Development Mah Bow said “…housing, how it has played a major role in building communities and the nation, and what lessons we can draw from it…mindful that this is viewed from a Singapore perspective…”
“Affordability has always been a major consideration in the pricing of HDB flats. HDB sells flats with a market subsidy to enable the majority of Singaporeans to afford a basic flat.”
- Tan S. B. & Naidu, V. L. (2014). Public Housing in Singapore: Examining Fundamental Shifts. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy website:
The paper discusses the public housing policies changes since the inception of the Home Ownership Scheme. It also offers policy alternatives for the purposes of class discussion.
- Housing Development Board. (2017, February 21). Home Sweet Home. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from the Housing Development Board website:
HDB’s website provides a one-stop information resource for home seekers and business users.
- Yuen, B. (2007, November). Squatters No More: Singapore Social Housing. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from the Global Urban Development website:
This paper focuses on the topic of land policy in the context of poverty, inequality and social exclusion. It examines Singapore’s housing policy development, identifies key policies and reforms and the impact they have on the poorer sectors in society in improving their urban quality of life.
Laws and Regulations
The housing laws in Singapore spell out the conditions under which a house (public or private) can be rented, bought and sold. These laws are aimed to protect the tenant, the landowner, the buyer and the seller and prevents unscrupulous underhanded dealings which could serve to over inflate the property market and cause property prices to spiral unchecked skywards. For public housing, there are also regulations that govern the usage of the flat, such as converting a residential space to a home-based office. The resources below provide information on Singapore’s housing laws and legislation.
This practical guide addresses questions about the process of buying and selling a home, covering aspects such as financing, legal matters, taxation, HDB resale and maintenance.
This book details the origins and developments in the Central Provident Fund (CPF) and expands on how it has helped as investment for healthcare and education and lifelong provision of income for old age. Chapter two focuses particularly on CPF housing schemes that were implemented to help Singaporeans become homeowners.
Laid out in an easy-to-digest question and answer format, HDB applicants (first timers and upgraders) will gain an insight to the procedures, rules and regulations which affect HDB property transactions in this guide.
- Sabaan, H. (2004). Buying a home. Singapore: Thomson/Sweet & Maxwell Asia.
Call no.: RSING 346.59570436 HAI
Written for the aspiring homeowner, this useful guide provides an overview of the legal and social responsibilities of homeownership. Some of the topics include regulations concerning the purchase of public and private homes, dealing with estate agents, handling fees and expenses and estate planning.
This book provides an overview of public housing legislation and focuses on the rights to ownership of HDB flats, HUDC flats and the executive condominium scheme.
- Yuen, B., Teo, H. P. & Ooi, G. L. (1999). Singapore housing : an annotated bibliography. Singapore : Housing Policy & Development Research Team, Faculty of Architecture, Building & Real Estate, National University of Singapore.
Call no.: PublicationSG
This annotated bibliography classifies the development of housing in Singapore into five time periods. It lists published as well as unpublished works on housing policy and development research of Singapore.
- Despite the shortening of maximum loan tenures, housing… (2016, April 26). Today (Singapore). Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“The debt-servicing ratio (DSR)- which looks at the proportion of monthly income used to pay off a mortgage- has fallen from 24 per cent in 2013 to 22 per cent in 2014, to 19 per cent last year…”
- More S’poreans eligible for HDB flats, grants after policy changes. (2016, April 13). My Paper. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“ the household income ceilings to buy new and resale HDB flats with the CPF Housing Grants were raised.
- HDB flat sellers can now ask for right to stay on; Such a mutually agreed upon deal, for up to 3 months, would let seller get cash, finish renovations in new property. (2014, July 23). Today. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“Previously, those who sold their HDB flats had to move out as soon as they completed the resale transaction as buyers were required under the lease to immediately occupy their new homes.”
- Integration out of reach as long as we live apart. (2014, June 24). Business Day. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…the Singapore housing programme was designed to strip society of the racial segregation that characterised colonialism and integrate income and racial groupings, while also preventing the development of ethnic or low-income enclaves.”
- Khaw Boon highlights importance of MRI for public flat owners. (2013, August 16). Singapore Government News. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“ Housing Development Board flat owners are required to either go for the Home Protection Scheme (HPS) or an equivalent Mortgage Reducing Insurance (MRI) scheme…these types of insurance can help in paying-off the outstanding loan on a flat if tragedy strikes the breadwinner of the family…”
Foreign nationals make for easier targets because they are unfamiliar with Singapore’s housing regulations and have to compete with so many others for a tenancy.
- Enter Singapore. (2017). Property Buyer’s Guide. Retrieved on 27 February 2017, from Enter Singapore website:
This website provides information on buying an apartment or house for foreigners, expatriates and permanent residents. It contains a summary of the pros and cons of buying a Singapore property, types of property in Singapore, a glossary of property sales jargon, guidelines on financing a property, purchase and resale step-by-step guides and links to other local websites with related information.
- Singapore Land Authority. (2016, August 31). Property Registration Services. Retrieved on 27 February 2017 from Singapore Land Authority website:
The Singapore Land Authority’s Land Titles Registry explains the Registration of Deeds Act and handles the registration of all property transactions in Singapore.
- Wong, L. (2008, June 23). Singapore’s Home Ownership Programme. Presentation from Singapore on the UN Public Service Day and Awards. Retrieved on 27 February 2017 from Singapore Land Authority website:
These slides provide an overview of how Singapore’s home ownership programme began in 1964. Key benefits of the programme are highlighted as well as the factors that have contributed to the success of the programme, such as strong government support (legislation and funding), comprehensive town planning, use of the CPF, flexible and responsive housing policies and continuous upgrading and redevelopment.
The BTO scheme was implemented in April 2001 by the Housing Development Board (HDB) to help match the supply of flats to the demand from home seekers. It also gives flat applicants more choices in terms of location, size of their homes and better estimation of when they need to place the down payment for their new flats. Under the scheme, HDB identifies a few sites for new flats but only starts building if demand reaches more than 70 per cent. Tender for construction of these new flats is called only when most of the flats have been booked. The pilot scheme offered about 2,500 flats for sale in four sites in Sembawang and Sengkang in April 2001.
- Muted response to launches of two residential projects. (2016, May 4). The Business Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…with Parc Life Executive Condominium (EC) project in Sembawang…selling over 50 units of the total 628 units…”
- Pledges of support for elderly folk. (2016, May 1). The Straits Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“Two new Build-To-Order” projects in the Bukit Batok single-member constituency will be ready by next year, and they may introduce more young families to the estate, where almost eight in 10 of the HDB blocks have been around for at least 30 years.”
- Committee of Supply debate: Ministry of Health; What seniors need, care providers seek to meet. (2016, April 14). The Straits Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…MOH is also working with the Housing Board to build “Active Ageing Hubs” within new Build-to-Order developments.”
- Loft living HDB-style. (2015, February 23). The Straits Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“The ‘loft concept’ living room was touted as a new style of public housing at its launch in 2009.”
- HDB resale flats a third more expensive than ne BTO flats in suburbs: Khaw. (2014, November 3). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…the price difference between the two flat types was 18 per cent in 2004.”
- 8,500 singles in S’pore apply for 155 flats. (2013, August 7). Asia News Network. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…more than 8,500 singles have jumped on the up to 155 flats in Sengkang and Yishun areas reserved for them.”
“…2,670 new units are being offered in the latest BTO exercise- the largest number of flats at any one launch in recent years…”
“For the first time, the Housing Board (HDB) is offering flexible flat layouts to best suit individual family needs. Three floor plans are available:- a standard layout, a larger living room option or a larger master bedroom option.”
They will be built only if about 70% are booked… The Housing Board is putting up for sale 128 three-room and 372 four-room flats in Sengkang, midway between Fernvale and Layar LRT stations.
The Housing Board has put up for sale 369 four-room flats in Punggol. These premium apartments, with better finish, go for $169,000 to $206,000.
It will begin construction of 7,600 units this year; figure is much lower than the 22,000 flats completed in 2001.
More than 2,400 people apply for 1,466 flats. The response rate outperforms pilot exercise in 2001. Singaporeans appear to be really warming up to the Housing Board’s Build-to-order programme.
Home buyers can now indicate which area they want to buy flat in and HDB will build when there is sufficient demand.
Options for buyers include picking unsold units or joining a scheme in which flats are built only if there is enough demand.
Changing ‘inflexible’ allocation system and building to order among suggestions for managing over-supply of new flats.
Big selection exercise will give all in the HDB queue their pick of 17,500 flats in new towns as Government acts to boost demand.
Fewer people are in the queue for new Housing Board flats. In June this year, only 22,000 applications came under the HDB’s Registration for Flat System (RFS), compared to the 37,000 in July last year.
New system would give buyers more control as it lets them choose the location and the kind of home they want.
These will be in Sembawang and Sengkang under a pilot project, which aims to give buyers greater control over the location of their new flats.
Prices are indicative with actual prices based on final design. The Housing and Development Board has revealed indicative prices for the pilot batch of 2,580 Build-to-Order (BTO) flats at four sites in Sembawang and Sengkang.
The Housing and Development Board will pilot the build-to-order (BTO) flats system in Sengkang and Sembawang in the second quarter.
- Housing Development Board. (2015, September 15). Build-To-Order/ Sale of Balance Flats. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017 from the Housing Development Board website:
Provides information on how the BTO scheme works, procedures for applying for a flat under this scheme and the optional component scheme.
Design, Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS)
The Design, Build and Sell Scheme was introduced in March 2005 to allow private developers to build public housing to create more choices for flat seekers and inject innovation in the building and design of multi-storey flats, while preserving the main characteristics of public housing, such as maintaining open access to common properties. Under this scheme, private developers are involved in not only the construction of the flats but are also responsible for bidding for the land, designing the flats and their surrounding landscape and selling the flats directly to eligible flat buyers. They are granted the freedom to decide on the design, finish, size and unit configuration of the flat and can sell the flats at a price comparable to those listed on the open market. When the development is completed, HDB then assumes administrative functions of the DBSS flats and the Town Councils will manage the common areas and carparks.
Past DBSS sites include The Premiere @ Tampines, City View @ Boon Keng, Park Central @ Ang Mo Kio, Natura Loft @ Bishan, Parc Lumiere @ Simei and The Peak @ Toa Payoh. Recent DBSS sites are Pasir Ris One@ Pasir Ris, Centrale 8 @ Tampines, Trivelis@ Clementi.
- City & Country: Qingjian’s The Visionaire presents next-generation smart home. (2016, April 11). The Edge Singapore. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“The government wants Singapore to be a ‘Smart Nation’, so we thought we should create our vision of a smart home.”
- City View @ Boon Keng unit fetches over $1m. (2016, March 11). The Straits Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“ A top-floor unit at City View @ Boon Keng has been sold for more than S$1 million, confirming predictions that the premium public housing project would turn some flat owners there into millionaires.”
- Home construction quality standards must be raised. (2015, September 4). Today (Singapore). Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“Bad workmanship…surfacing with increasing frequency in public housing…Residents have complained about narrow corridors, cracked walls, uneven flooring, leaks and overflowing toilets, and plaster slabs falling off…”
…This move has surprised industry analysts, as buyers of such hybrid flats under the Housing Board’s Design, Build and Sell scheme (DBSS) have a fixed household income ceiling of $8,000….
… But at prices of $500,000 to $730,000, the Design, Build and Sell Scheme units don’t come cheap…
“… I had to physically queue alongside hundreds of others for a flat at the Design, Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS) project in Simei… The queue lasted two days. The fatigue, however, lingered on for the rest of the week.”
… The project, at Lorong 1A Toa Payoh, comes under the Design, Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS), and offers premium fittings. But unlike private condominiums, these projects do not have facilities.
…The tightening property market and demand for smaller homes have created a dilemma for the HDB’s design, build and sell scheme (DBSS) – price flats over $500,000 and buyers could stay away….
- Private ayes. (2009, February 7). The Straits Times, p. 92. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
…Launched in 2006, The Premiere is the Housing Board’s first privately developed flat under its Design, Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS). There were two-, four- and five-room flats on offer at prices from $138,000 to $450,000 at that time.
Falling prices in private home market chipping away at demand for DBSS flats
…Natura Loft at Bishan, a project under the Housing Board’s Design , Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS), will feature three 40-storey blocks of 160 four-room units and 320 five-roomers….
A yoga plaza, roof-top garden and spacious balconies with planter boxes for alfresco relaxation and dining — not the normal features you would expect to find in an Housing and Development Board (HDB) estate.
…Singaporeans should also get to enjoy the ‘HDB experience’. To this end, condo-like flats are being built under the Design , Build & Sell Scheme in areas such as Boon Keng and Bishan.
…resale prices rose by about 17 per cent last year. In addition, reports said that buyers forked out up to $727,000 for a five-room flat in a private-developer built, condo-style project offered under the Design , Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS).
…National Development Minister Mah Bow Tan told Parliament that high-end flats – built under the Design, Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS) – ‘serve to fulfil the needs of a niche segment of the HDB market – those with higher aspirations.
…Taking up the issue of Design , Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS) flats in Parliament yesterday, Nominated Member of Parliament (NMP) Eunice Olsen said: “When the income ceiling of $8,000 was set by the Housing and Development Board (HDB), there was no…
…These more luxurious HDB flats, built under the Design, Build and Sell Scheme, are being snapped up by homebuyers. Even before the project’s launch, more than 1,000 inquiries had been made.
… Under the Design , Build and Sell Scheme, private developers are free to design, price and sell the flats as long as they work within the confines of…
- Housing Development Board. (2016, March 2). DBSS. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from the Housing Development Board website:
Provides all the information one needs to know about DBSS, such as the procedures, policies, eligibility criteria, priority and financing schemes available. Also includes a link to the current 6 DBSS sites that have been launched for sale and some brief information on up-coming DBSS sites.
- Estate Rejuvenation Programmes
The government implemented an Estate Renewal Strategy (ERS) to spruce up old housing estates and improve the quality of life for the residents. Under ERS, these are the key programmes initiated:
- Main Upgrading Programme (MUP)
– launched in July 1989 to improve the overall living environment of old flats and their housing estates.
- Lift Upgrading Programme (LUP)
– launched in 1990 for HDB blocks to provide direct access to flats on every floor for the convenience of residents.
- Interim Upgrading Programme Plus (IUP Plus)
– started in 20 May 2002, combines the Interim Upgrading Programme (IUP) and Lift Upgrading Programme (LUP) – it discontinued in 2007 with the introduction of Neighbourhood Renewal Programme.
Selective En bloc Redevelopment Scheme (SRES)
– residents living in flats that have identified for SERS will be allocated a replacement flat at HDB’s subsidised price with an added 20% price discount and receive compensation at market value for the current flat.
– flats built up to 1986 which have not undergone the Main Upgrading Programme qualify for this programme。
– rectifies common maintenance problems in ageing flats eg. spalling concrete and ceiling leaks。
- Neighbourhood Renewal Programme (NRP) – replaces IUP Plus – flats built up to 1989 which have not undergone the Main Upgrading Programme, Interim Upgrading Programme or IUP Plus are eligible for NRP – improves the block and neighbourhood facilities.
This book outlines the key success factors and experience gone through by the team in HDB to make its public housing programme such a phenomenal success.
This CD-ROM presents the story of how Singapore’s public housing programme was initiated and implemented after the Housing and Development Board was formed in 1960, and the various upgrading and redevelopment programmes that have helped to enhance the wellbeing of residents.
- Aljunied-Hougang among 3 Town Councils with largest number of HIP-eligible flats. (2016, April 6). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“ The three Town Councils with the largest number of eligible Housing and Development Board (HDB) flats for the Home Improvement Programme (HIP) are…”
- HDB committed to upgrading existing towns. (2015, December 2). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“Estate rejuvenation could be a focus area for the Housing and Development Board (HDB) going forward.”
“My parents bought this flat when we heard it was slated for HDB’s Selective En bloc Redevelopment Scheme, and now we’re moving into a four-room flat in Dawson.”
A detailed list of HDB precincts whose estates were improved with such features as covered linkways, barbecue pits and community gardens was given in Parliament yesterday.
More than 1,300 households in Nee Soon South may get lift landings on every floor and a facelift to their estate soon – if at least three in four residents from the selected blocks agree to it.
Over the years, HDB has introduced various upgrading programmes to rejuvenate older estates. These programmes improve the physical living environment and bring them closer to the standard of newer estates.
The Ministry of National Development (MND) and the Housing and Development Board (HDB) said yesterday that $86.1 million will be spent to upgrade the third batch of sites chosen for the Neighbourhood Renewal Programme (NRP).
…The Housing Board yesterday announced the rejuvenation of these estates at a cost of $86.1 million under its Neighbourhood Renewal Programme (NRP)….
- Toa Payoh. (2009, August 28). The Straits Times, p. 108. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
The 463 ha estate is also among those earmarked for the $1billion Home Improvement Programme, which will introduce improvements like new toilets and metal grille gates over the next three years.
The residents have spoken: In a recent survey conducted by the Housing and Development Board (HDB), 99 per cent of Yishun residents are satisfied with the work under the Home Improvement Programme (HIP).
The Government is ramping up a programme to spruce up older HDB flats over the next three years – a move that is expected to benefit 33,000 households.
With five years to go before the nation-wide Lift Upgrading Programme (LUP) is due for completion, the countdown may have also finally begun for residents in Potong Pasir and Hougang.
Some 23,000 households — nearly twice as many as in the previous batch — are next to benefit from the neighbourhood renewal programme (NRP).
Bukit Panjang will be among the first few estates to benefit from the Neighbourhood Renewal Programme, which is aimed at upgrading older HDB estates.
Costs are moderating and the work will help smaller contractors, says Grace Fu. The pace of lift upgrading in HDB blocks will be increased by as much as 12 per cent this year – a move that will give struggling local builders a timely leg up.
Older estates will be rejuvenated through the injection of new flats and residents. The government will spend $8.5 billion to revamp Singapore’s HDB estates and develop the commercial nodes of Marina Bay, Jurong East, Paya Lebar and Kallang.
From breaking the back of the housing problem in the 1960s, the HDB’s new challenge is meeting aspirations of dwellers in the new millennium.
In many countries, public housing is a dirty word. But in Singapore, HDB flats are able to offer its residents quality lifestyles in quality buildings.
Residents of blocks 227 to 235 at Yishun Street 21 yesterday became the first to cast their votes under the new Home Improvement Programme (HIP), which will see the interiors of their ageing flats upgraded according to homeowners’ choices.
Yishun might be showing its age but it is in line for a radical renewal that will smarten up existing facilities and add exciting new ones.
Several hundred Tampines residents are expected to be among the first to have their flats spruced up in a new Housing Board scheme that will see the Government foot most of the bill.
The Home Improvement Programme will not boost prices of resale flats as much because upgrading is on a smaller scale, say property experts.
About 590 Housing Board blocks in 58 locations islandwide have been picked for the next batch of improvement works under the HDB’s recently revised upgrading schemes. Areas set to benefit include Yishun, Tampines and Hougang.
THE Housing Board will not neglect the needs of the poor, or be rigid, as it upgrades flats under schemes which have recently been revamped.
The department of statistics and HDB conduct regular surveys to capture the demographic profiles of residents living in HDB flats. The property market trends in Singapore correspond closely to the country’s economic performance, declining during times of financial downturns and flourishing during the boom periods. The majority of Singaporeans live in public housing and upgrading or downgrading is common as their economic status and demographic profiles of households change. Many people who work and study in Singapore for short durations also rent HDB flats or rooms as these are significantly more affordable, compared to renting private apartments. The following resources provide statistical information on public housing in Singapore, as well as HDB resale and rental trends.
This publication describes the household characteristics of Singaporeans who had upgraded or downgraded their homes during 1991-1995. The trends revealed that the majority of households that upgraded had a larger household size and higher household income, while the converse was true for households that downgraded.
This paper provides a profile of HDB flat tenants, examines their financial situation and concerns and assesses the potential for upward social mobility for these households.
This publication is also available in CD-ROM at L11 of the Lee Kong Chian Reference Library. This sample household survey conducted in 2003 covers demographic profiles of HDB residents, residents’ level of community bonding, neighbourly interactions and kinship ties, and adaptatopn to living in a high-rise, high-density environment.
This statistical publication charts the broad trends and changes in the last decade for these areas: household size, household structure, household living arrangement, household income, type of dwelling, home ownership and residential mobility.
The collection of 11 articles in this book explores varied facets of the Asian family life across five subject areas: household economic theory, consumption economics, social accounting, public finance and the economics of labour. Of particular interest is chapter five, where the author demonstrates that standard household characteristics such as income, marital status and family size helps an individual to decide whether to rent or to purchase housing in Singapore.
- Research & Planning Department, Housing & Development Board. (2000). Profile of residents living in HDB flats. Singapore: Research & Planning Dept., Housing & Development Board.
Call no.: *RQUIK q363.585095957 PRO issue 01/03/2000
This publication is available upon request at the L11 Information Counter of the Lee Kong Chian Reference Library. This monograph focuses on the profile of HDB residents living in both HDB home ownership and rented flats, providing information on the household demographic and economic characteristics as well as on the residents’ travelling patterns to work/ school. The elderly and their lifestyles in HDB estates are also profiled.
This paper consists of a longitudinal study by measuring the income growth of households at different life cycle stages and compares income distribution among lower-income and higher-income households.
Household income growth is compared for the years 1990 and 2000, with trends showing that more households are in the higher income brackets, all ethnic groups have shown improvements in household income and there is a direct correlations between level of education attained and household income. Survey findings also show an increase in household income disparity, with comparisons made for 1990, 1998, 1999 and 2000.
This large-scale national survey documents the trends and changes in residents’ mode of transport to work/ school, overseas travel and household and housing characteristics of resident households since 2000.
This occasional paper examines the housing mobility of Singapore resident population from 1995 to 2005. Using data drawn from the General Household Survey 1995, it offers a classification of housing mobility.
This monograph analyses the trends in household movement (upgrading, downgrading or lateral shifting) over the past 4 decades from 1960-1990. It also examines the living arrangement of residents upon marriage, residents’ intention to move within the next five years and their housing aspirations.
Available on request from L11 Information Counter of the Lee Kong Chian Reference Library. This survey profiles HDB residents and highlights trends such as a decline in household sizes, an increase in the number of elderly residents and higher ownership of consumer goods. It also measures residents’ satisfaction with the physical aspects of their housing estates, such as the reliability of lifts, privacy from neighbours and adequate commercial facilities (shops, markets, eating places etc).
- HDB resale prices in Q1 stay flat. (2016, April 23). The Business Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“Property consultants continue to believe that the public housing resale market is ‘at a new equilibrium’ and stabilising.”
- My HDB home: buy, hold or sell? (2016, April 7). The Business Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“Statistics from the Housing and Development Board (HDB) are increasingly pointing to a stabilising resale market.”
- Home truths. (2013, March 25). The Business Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“… continued buoyancy of the property market reflects the very low interest rate environment and continued income growth in Singapore. Housing prices have also shown signs of re-accelerating in recent months…”
- Cooling measures may not be enough to dampen property fever, says iProperty. (2013, February 4). PR Newswire Asia. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“Singapore property buyers understand that prices will continue to go up, but appreciate the Government stepping in to manage the pace and ensure that public housing will remain within their reach…”
- EC supply rate can afford to slow: housing experts. (2012, December 16). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…as part of seven EC projects this year remain unsold.”
More families are moving into rental flats and seeking assistance. Along Boon Lay Drive are two blocks of flats which have been filling up steadily with residents over the past eight months.
A possible reason: They wish to avoid tensions with families of children. Three-quarters of some 3,000 baby boomers surveyed want to live on their own in their golden years, going by the results of the first study on those now aged between 44 and 61.
Lower-than-forecast 3.7% growth could signal start of decline. The property market may have gone quiet, but home prices continued their steady climb in the first three months of this year, albeit at a much weaker pace.
Rising rents, influx of foreign talent set to spur demand for homes, say analysts. The attraction to foreigners of buying a non-landed home in Singapore isn’t expected to wane in the mid- to longer-term, say property experts.
Bukit Batok home prices soar 43% but other districts drop as much as 20%. Private homes in some suburban areas proved the most resilient amid a general slowing in price rises across the board, the latest government figures show.
Trend appears to be island-wide and for all apartment sizes, but resale prices stay flat. Rents for HDB flats have surged in the past 12 months, driven by spillover demand as rents for private housing have climbed.
- Housing Development Board. (2015, October 15). Rental Statistics. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Housing Development Board website:
This webpage provides information on the HDB resale and subletting market.
- Housing Development Board. (2015, October 2). Resale Statistics. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Housing Development Board website:
The HDB Resale Price Index tracks the overall price movement of the public residential market. The index is calculated using resale transactions registered across various towns, flat types and models, with the fourth quarter of 1998 as the base period (i.e. index has value 100 in 4Q98). Transacted prices and other details of resale transactions approved for the past one year are also available.
- Department of Statistics Singapore. (2017, February 8). Households & Housing. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017 from Department of Statistics Singapore website:
Provides links to statistical publications on households and housing characteristics, such as type of dwelling, average household size and resident demographics.
- Department of Statistics Singapore. (2017, February 16). Key Household Income Trends, 2016. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Department of Statistics Singapore website:
This paper highlights the key trends in household income in 2015.
- Department of Statistics Singapore. (2017, February 16). General Household Survey, 2015. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Department of Statistics Singapore website:
The general household survey is a large-scale mid-decade national survey undertaken by the Singapore Department of Statistics. It is the second largest statistical project in Singapore after the Population Census. It provides benchmark data for key demographic, social and labour force statistics between the Census years.
- Department of Statistics Singapore. (2017, February 16). Household Expenditure Survey, 2012/13. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Department of Statistics Singapore website:
The Household Expenditure Survey (HES) collects detailed information on the latest consumption expenditure of resident households in Singapore. It also obtains households’ demographic and socio-economic characteristics and ownership of consumer durables.
- Department of Statistics Singapore. (2017, February 16). Housing Mobility Between 1995 and 2005. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Department of Statistics Singapore website:
This paper by the Singapore Department of Statistics examines the housing mobility of Singapore residents over a decade from 1995 to 2005. A classification of household mobility table assigns a rank to each type of dwelling. The comparison is made between the type of dwelling in 1995 and 2005 for the heads of households.
Urban Planning for Sustainable Development
Long-term sustainable planning for an urban city-state such as Singapore requires the prudent formulation and execution of policies to ensure efficient land and resource use, adequate and affordable public housing and sound infrastructural development to achieve continued economic progress and improve the quality of life for Singaporeans. These policies also need to be flexible to meet the challenges of perpetual changes in the global climate and technology. In the pursuit for prosperity, sustainable development necessitates safeguarding the environment as a way to maintain a high standard of public health and ensure Singapore’s attraction as a desirable place to live and work. It also requires making conscious efforts to conserve energy and water, while investing in R&D to find resource alternatives and taking advantage of new technologies to meet the growing needs of the population in a resource-scarce society.
This Concept Plan 21 maps out the long-term plan for Singapore’s physical growth for the next 40 to 50 years. Seven key proposals that represent the key thrusts for housing, recreation, business, infrastructure and identity are: new homes in familiar places; high-rise city living; more choices for recreation; greater flexibility for businesses; a global business centre; an extensive rail network and focus on identity.
Contributed by academics and industry experts, the collection of articles in this book focuses on the architectural spaces in Singapore, focusing on the inter-relationships among space, historicity, architecture and texuality, that is, Singapore as seen to be an example of postcolonialsim and global urbanism.
Details seven housing projects in Singapore, each linked to a global urban need, such eco-design for environmental sustainability, space efficiency for short term residential stayers, maximising housing potential through high density living, balancing high-density living with residential living (through fusing public housing with public green space), and independent living for the elderly.
- Hwang, Y. H. (Ed.). (2012). Reimaging HDB landscape Singapore : Centre for Advanced Studies in Architecture, Dept. of Architecture, National University of Singapore.
Call no.: RSING 720.95957 REI
Students of architecture look at middle-aged HDB towns in Singapore and propose ways to enhance connectivity, accessibility and identity of site, as well as enhance environmental quality whilst meeting living demands. Under-established and under-utilised landscapes will change into more intensified places through multiple intervention.
This report from the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Sustainable Development sets out the blueprint to develop a national framework and key strategies for Singapore’s sustainable development. The four strategies identified are: 1. to improve resource efficiency; 2. to enhance our physical environment; 3. to engage the community and 4. to build up our technologies and capabilities.
This book provides an insight to the planning and policies initiated to develop Singapore’s urban built environment. Topics covered include the public housing process and space, recreational space, shopping and retail space and public and commercial spaces.
This book addresses the issue of environmental sustainability for rapidly developing Asian cities, in particular, Singapore. It highlights concerns with environmental degradation, overcrowding, social disruption, inadequate housing infrastructure and services and the ecological impact of urbanisation on air and water quality.
This book looks back into Singapore’s past since her independence in 1965 and analyses the urban planning and development strategies that the government has initiated to develop Singapore into a global city-state.
- Singapore. Ministry of National Development. (2001). Building a 21st century city. Singapore: Ministry of National Development.
Call no.: RSING 354.095957 SIN
This publication presents an overview of the responsibilities, mission and objectives of the Ministry of National Development (MND) that are crucial to sustaining Singapore’s economic development. Areas that come under their purview include land use planning, urban redevelopment and building conservation, public housing, the construction industry, parks and greenery and food safety and security.
This publication is a 10 year environment and community plan for the South West District. Its five goals (Cool, Green, Clean, Caring and Proactive Communities) aim to “build a home that is clean, green and healthy, a home that is sustainable and populated by people engaged with the community”.
This book documents government policy deliberations and changes in land use planning that have transformed Singapore’s urban landscape over the last 40 years. Areas covered include the tranformation of Singapore’s central business district, the transition from physical infrastructure to infostructure, industrialisation, public vs. private housing and the development of recreational spaces.
- Wong, Tai-Chee, Yuen, B. & Goldblum, C. (Eds.). (2008). Spatial planning for a sustainable Singapore. Dordrecht; London: Springer in association with the Singapore Institute of Planners, 2008.
Call no.: RSING 307.1216095957 SPA
This collection of articles from academics and industry professionals reflects on urban planning reforms and strategies that have impacted Singapore’s sustainable development. Of particular interest is chapter 8, which examines Singapore’s public housing development over the last four decades.
- HDB launches public exhibition on new housing areas. (2013, August 29). Singapore Government News. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“…the plans for Bidadari, Tampines North, and Punggol Matilda, will capitalise on their individual distinctive character to bring about a unique identity and living experience. They will build on each estate’s history, distinctive local flavour and features.
- HDB awards lease contract for 3-MWp solar systems in Singapore. (2013, January 23). SeeNews Renewables. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“The solar installations will power 80 residential blocks in the Punggol Eco-Town housing complex in Singapore.”
- Use of solar panels on HDB blocks has resulted in savings. (2012, November 16). Today. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“… blocks with solar panels installed currently enjoy between S$5 and S$800 in savings per block per month, or up to 5 per cent off prevailing electricity tariff rate…”
- Report on climate change effects on S’pore expected in 2009. (2008, December 31). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
A team of local and foreign experts is studying possible long-term effects of climate change on Singapore and the findings are expected to be out next year.
By the time the government unveils the next Budget in February, it should be much clearer as to where Singapore’s sustainable development journey is headed over the next 10 to 15 years.
Singapore has to work harder at cutting down energy usage – perhaps by 20 per cent to 30 per cent, as countries around the world increasingly emphasise sustainable development.
Private push can spark government actions to adopt sustainable development.
With malls, hotels, offices and entertainment outlets, the sleepy charms of the area around Jurong East MRT Station are poised for a stunning makeover. The place – called Jurong Gateway – will be turned into the biggest regional centre on the island.
A government panel will release a 10-year roadmap next year for Singapore to grow its economy in an environmentally sound way, National Development Minister Mah Bow Tan said yesterday.
- Cheong, K.H. (2008, June). Achieving Sustainable Urban Development. World Cities Summit. Retrieved on 27 February 2017 from Civil Service College website:
This paper highlights the challenges Singapore faces in its journey towards achieving sustainable urban development. This necessitates a holistic approach involving carefully thought-out and innovative policies and making use of appropriate technology, while ensuring that economic growth and societal well-being are sustained.
- Centre for Liveable Cities Singapore. (2017, February 15). Home. Retrieved on 27 February 2017 from Centre for Liveable Cities Singapore website:
CLC was set up to develop Singapore’s expertise on sustainable urban development in areas such as good governance, integrated urban planning, effective resource management, affordable quality housing, efficient transport management and environmental sustainability. CLC constructs research in sustainable urban development, liveability of cities, and environment management, conducts training programmes and workshops for policy makers and promotes linkages with international institutions.
- Centre for Sustainable Asian Cities, National University of Singapore. (nd.). Home. Retrieved on 27 February 2017 from Centre for Sustainable Asian Cities, School of Design and Environment website:
“The Centre for Sustainable Asian Cities serves as a platform to develop cutting-edge urban planning and design solutions as well as building technological innovations for high density environments that will be applicable to many cities in Asia and other developing countries. CSAC will complement the efforts at the national level, through the work of Singapore’s Ministry of National Development, to develop appropriate solutions and best practices for more sustainable and liveable cities.” Executive summaries are provided at http://www.sde.nus.edu.sg/csac/projects.htm for several research projects that the Centre is undertaking, such as the following: – Benchmarks, best practices and framework for sustainable urban development and cities – High density threshold studies – Urban space planning for sustainable high density environments.
- Sustainable Energy Association of Singapore. (2015). Home. Retrieved on 27 February 2017 from Sustainable Energy Association of Singapore website:
Set up in 2006, SEAS aims to develop Singapore into a regional centre for energy efficiency technologies, through organising trainings, courses, trade missions and conferences in the area of sustainable energy. SEAS helps to facilitate communication between the Government, and the sustainable energy community, and provides networking opportunities for its 80 member companies.
- Singapore. (2016). Sustainable Singapore Blueprint – A Lively and Livable Singapore: Strategies for Sustainable Growth. Retrieved on 27 February 2017, from the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform website:
This blueprint sets out the strategies and initiatives needed for Singapore to achieve both economic growth and a good living environment over the next two decades. To meet the challenging demands of an expanding population and limited land resources, more efficient use of both renewable and non-renewable resources is vital.
- (2015). Sustainable Singapore Blueprint 2015: Our Home, Our Environment, Our Future. Singapore: Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources and Ministry of National Development. Retrieved on 27 February 2017, from Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources website:
An extension of the blueprint outlined in 2009 for a “Lively and Liveable Singapore, one that Singaporeans love and are proud to call home”. The Blueprint of 2015 outlines the following targets- eco-smart endearing towns, a car-lite Singapore, a zero-waste nation, and a leading green economy.
- Urban Redevelopment Authority (2016, July 28). Introduction to Master Plan. Retrieved on 27 February 2017, from Urban Redevelopment Authority website:
The Master Plan is the statutory land use plan which guides Singapore’s development in the medium term over the next 10 to 15 years. It is reviewed every five years and translates the broad long-term strategies of the Concept Plan into detailed plans to guide development. The Master Plan shows the permissible land use and density for developments in Singapore.
Green and Sustainable Architecture
Green and sustainable architecture refers to a building that is designed and constructed to minimise impact on the environment and ensures that the building is resource-efficient (materials, energy, water, space) in its operation and maintenance.
With greater awareness among the masses of the environmental degradation caused by man’s actions, there is a need to ensure that the development of public housing in Singapore does not cause further damage to the environment. To this end, the Housing and Development Board capitalises on green technologies and optimises energy conservation, water management and waste management in developing Singapore’s housing estates.
Published to coincide with HDB’s 25th anniversary, this publication provides a pictorial commentary that documents the transformations in public housing architecture over the last four decades since Singapore attained self-government in 1959. The full-coloured photographs bear testimony to the richness in design variation and HDB’s architectural quality of work.
- Singapore. Housing and Development Board. Architectural Dept. (1992). Design portfolio: concept + text. Singapore: Architectural Dept., Building and Development Division, Housing and Development Board.
Call no.: RSING 711.5095957 SIN
This monograph highlights examples of HDB housing and commercial projects, sports complexes, parks and gardens, upgraded precincts and award winning designs such as the Tampines New Town, Simei Neighbourhood Centre and Sin Ming Court.
This publication sets out the guidelines for the design of a precinct within a HDB town, covering the design and safety considerations, structural and foundation guidelines for a block of flats, the design and functional provisions for a flat, requirements and design considerations for the carpark, social and community facilities and landscape design.
This publication presents the findings and recommendations from HDB’s Universal Design Study Team that was formed in 2005 to review the design of HDB flats. The universal design considerations adhere to HDB’s objectives to build homes for a wide spectrum of people, make them user-friendly, accessible (barrier-free) and are adaptable to individual preferences.
This publication provides insights to HDB’s approach to environmental sustainable developments, focusing on the areas of environmental quality, energy, water and resources. The last section of the book features HDB’s demo eco-precinct in Punggol, which makes use of environmental features, design strategies and Green Building Technologies to achieve effective management of energy, water and waste.
- Luxury hotel? No, Singapore’s new-generation public housing. (2015, October 29). CNN Wire. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“We want to plan towns that are well designed, (and) sustainable as well as community-centric…”
- Dream towns. (2013, September 28). The Straits Times, Life!. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“ Waterfront living and car-free estates are ideas thrown up for Tanjong Pagar and Paya Lebar…”
- S’pore’s housing board to go big on solar energy. (2013, September 25). Asia News Network. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“The HDB will called its largest solar-leasing tender for a company to own and operate panels on some 125 blocks…The HDB will offset up to 30 per cent of the start-up costs, and, in turn, buy the electricity for 20 years at a 5 per cent or greater discount off the prevailing market price. This electricity would power lights in corridors and common areas, lifts and water pumps, among other things.”
- HDB’s first eco town tests green solutions. (2012, October 12). The Straits Times. Retrieved from FACTIVA.
“Punggol town is the latest housing development by Singapore Housing Development Board (HDB)- and the most unique. Dubbed the ‘living laboratory”, the first eco-town in Singapore is planned and developed from scratch with the view of promoting sustainable development through holistic urban planning and design, adoption of green technologies and active community partnership.”
The development, which will be launched in mid-2010, will have about 1,200 mostly four-bedroom apartments and will offer residents an eco-friendly housing experience, HDB said.
SINGAPORE’S first waterfront public housing project in Punggol will offer 1,200 flats featuring sky terraces, roof gardens and panoramic views of the Punggol Waterway.
The study on sustainable housing may offer urban forms that are new to the public housing scene. For instance, it will consider projects that look into European-style courtyards, to see if that approach works here, said Mr Hoo.
This is the first public housing project to win a government award for being environment-friendly…
…Separate chutes for recyclables will also be installed at the first two projects under the new generation public housing in the regenerated Dawson estate.
Next-gen HDB housing to offer greener lifestyles. (2007, October 10). The Straits Times, p. 32. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
Minister for National Development Mah Bow Tan delivered this message on growing interest in environmentally sustainable housing at the annual Housing Board awards and public housing seminar yesterday.
Going tropical. (2002, March 8). The Business Times, p. 20. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
Sustainable architecture is almost non-existent in Singapore. Cheah Ui-Hoon looks at how ‘green’ housing can be encouraged locally.
- Building And Construction Authority. (2017, January 27). Green Mark Projects. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Building And Construction Authority website:
Launched in 2005, the BCA Green Mark is a green building rating system for new and existing buildings. To date, it also encompasses schemes for parks, office interiors, landed houses and infrastructures. This website highlights the winners of the BCA Green Mark award for 2005-2009.
- Building And Construction Authority. (2017, February 6). BCA Green Mark Assessment Criteria and Online Application. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Building And Construction Authority website:
These slides present the BCA Green Mark criteria for residential buildings, with a set of mandatory requirements and other elective requirements such as energy and water efficiency, environmental protection, indoor enviromental quality and other green features.
- Building And Construction Authority. (2016, June 29). Sustainable Construction. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Building And Construction Authority website:
This website provides details on the various methods BCA uses to achieve sustainable construction. These include using alternative and recycled materials for construction to reduce depletion of natural resources and enhance the resilience of Singapore’s construction industry. Five case studies of buildings that were completed using sustainable construction are featured. It also provides links to sustainable construction publications.
- Building And Construction Authority. (2016, September 5). Legislation on Environmental Sustainability for Buildings. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Building And Construction Authority website:
These slides provide an overview of the proposed legislative framework that aims to ensure that the construction and maintenance of buildings minimise the impact on the envrionment. This primarily involves establishing a minimum environmental sustainability standard in the planning, design, construction and operation of building projects.
- Building And Construction Authority. (2016, December 16). Green Building Masterplan. Retrieved on 27 February, 2017, from Building And Construction Authority website:
The BCA Green Mark Scheme (green building rating system) formed the basis of the first Green Building Masterplan released in 2004. This second Green Building Masterplan aims to get both the private and public sectors involved and continue building on industry capabilities towards the goal for Singapore to achieve a sustainable built environment by 2030. The third Green Building Masterplan maps out a five-to-ten year strategy to accelerate the ‘greening’ of existing buildings in order to achieve the set target of 80 percent green buildings by 2030.
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Neo Tiong Seng & Sharon Teng
Irene Lim (updated by)
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